Whole grains have not been milled and have a short shelf life. Milled grains are polished to remove the germ, bran, and hull. They have a longer shelf life but can lose nutritive value.
Three parts of a wheat kernel: Endosperm Bran Germ
9 types of flour All-purpose flour Bread flour Cake flour Clear flour Durum flour High gluten flour Pastry flour Semolina Whole wheat flour
Types of sugar Granulated, Superfine,Sanding Pearl,Brown, Turbinedo, Confectioners, Isomalt,Corn syrup, Glucose,syrup, Molasses Malt syrup, Golden syrup, Honey, Maple syrup, Inverted syrup
What is a thickener? An ingredient that is capable of gelling, stabilizing, or thickening.
2 types of thickeners: Gelatin: is a protein processed from the bones, skin, and connective tissue of animals. Processed starches: arrowroot is a thickener commonly used to thicken foods.
4 types of dairy projects: Milk and cream, Fermented and cultured milk products, Cheeses, Butter
What is the function of fats: they tenderize, add flavor, have leavening strength, and moisture, and create a flaky texture.
Types of chocolate: Cocoa powder Unsweetened chocolate Semisweet chocolate Bittersweet chocolate Milk chocolate White chocolate
Purpose of leaveners: to help baked goods rise! Yeast leveaner: active dry yeast- requires warmth to be activated. Chemical leavener: Baking powder- mixture of bio carbonate of soda and an acid.